3 MCPD and GEs: a new adversary or an old acquaintance?
Glycidyl esters (GEs) are produced from diacylglycerides in extreme heat (their content correlates with diacylglycerides level). Mono- and diacylglycerides are generated in oils by hydrolysis, caused by active lipases. Oil crop seeds and fruits contain lipase, an enzyme that gets more active with ripening. Lipase interacts with oil contained in ripe fruits, degrading triglycerides swiftly to free fatty acids, monoacylglycerides and diacylglycerides. Model systems show clear connection between those agents’ content and the subsequent glycidyl esters generation (Fig. 1) during heat treatment. For vegetable oils, factors promoting 3 MCPD and GEs generation during processing are: climate, soil, plant growth conditions, harvesting and storage methods.